CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY ISSUES UPDATE – SEPTEMBER 2014

 

PSAB ACTIVITIES

ASM Comments on NIGMS Strategic Plan
ASM Sends Letter to HHS Secretary on Resources in Response to the Ebola Virus Outbreak
ASM Letter to the UN Concerning Scientific Resources in Response to the Ebola Virus Outbreak
ASM Compiles DURC Policy Documents
ASM Statement on National Strategy to Combat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
ASM Attends CPT Pathology Coding Caucus Meeting
ASM Staff Attend House Committee Hearing on LDTs
ASM Informs Members about US Government Communication on Lab Biosafety
Minority Microbiology Mentor Newsletter
ASM NEWS, JOURNAL ARTICLES AND UPDATES

Photo Quizzes
ASM Conferences
ASM Journal Articles of Interest
ASM Press
Articles of Interest
FEDERAL AGENCY UPDATES

November Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC) Meeting
CDC’s Laboratory Response Network Ready for Ebola Threat
CDC Posts Enterovirus D68 Outbreaks Page
CDC Warns Ebola Epidemic in West Africa is Outpacing Current Response
FDA Allows Marketing of the First Test to Identify Five Yeast Pathogens Directly from a Blood Sample
FDA Releases Updated Proposals to Improve Food Safety and Help Prevent Foodborne Illness in Response to Public Comments
NIH Study Supports Camels as Primary Source of MERS-CoV Transmission
Rapid and Durable Protection against Ebola Virus with New Vaccine Regimens
MMWR Articles of Interest
OTHER INFORMATION AND UPDATES

ASCP 2014 Annual Meeting
Webinar: MALDI-TOF for Beginners
International Pathology Day
Webinar: Using CPOE, Test Formulary and Algorithm to Control Utilization
Articles of Interest
PSAB ACTIVITIES

ASM Comments on NIGMS Strategic Plan
On September 26, ASM submitted comments to Director Jon Lorsch of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) on its 2015 Strategic Planning Framework. To read ASM’s comments, and to see a link to the strategic plan, please go to http://www.asm.org/index.php/public-policy-2/137-policy/documents/statements-and-testimony/93180-nigms-sp-9-14.

ASM Sends Letter to HHS Secretary on Resources in Response to the Ebola Virus Outbreak
The ASM sent a letter to Sylvia Burwell, Secretary US Department of Health & Human Services with recommendations concerning scientific resources that are needed in response to the Ebola virus outbreak.

ASM Letter to the UN Concerning Scientific Resources in Response to the Ebola Virus Outbreak
The ASM sent a letter to David Nabarro, Senior United Nations System Coordinator for Ebola Virus Disease with recommendations concerning scientific resources that are needed in response to the Ebola virus outbreak.

ASM Compiles DURC Policy Documents
The ASM is making its members aware that the United States Government issued the final US Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC) on September 24. To see the compiled resources on DURC policies, please go to https://www.asm.org/index.php/public-policy/98-policy/issues/93178-durc-9-14.

ASM Statement on National Strategy to Combat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
The ASM sent a statement on the National Strategy to Combat Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria, which was announced by President Obama on September 18, 2014 to ASM members, Congress and representatives of various federal agencies. http://www.asm.org/index.php/public-policy-2/137-policy/documents/statements-and-testimony/93168-ar-2014.

ASM Attends CPT Pathology Coding Caucus Meeting
PSAB Professional Affairs Committee Chair Robert Jerris attended the September 12 meeting of the Pathology Coding Caucus (PCC). The PCC makes coding recommendations on new clinical laboratory tests to the American Medical Association (AMA), which is responsible for official Current Procedural Terminology (CPT®) coding, the most widely accepted medical nomenclature used to report medical procedures and services under private and public health insurance programs, including Medicare. ASM is a rotating member of the PCC.

ASM Staff Attend House Committee Hearing on LDTs
On September 9, The House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Health held a hearing on Laboratory Developed Tests (LDTs), which ASM staff attended. The hearing was intended to provide the Subcommittee with a better understanding of how LDTs are performed. It also provided an opportunity to hear from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a variety of stakeholders about the Agency’s recently proposed regulatory framework for review and oversight of LDTs. To watch the archived hearing, go to http://energycommerce.house.gov/hearing/21st-century-cures-examining-regulation-laboratory-developed-tests.

ASM Informs Members about US Government Communication on Lab Biosafety
The ASM sent an e-mail to ASM members regarding US Government communications about ensuring biosafety in US laboratories. Both the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the National institutes of Health released notices in August addressing laboratory biosafety. To see the message, complete with links to statements, please click http://www.asm.org/index.php/component/content/article/98-policy/issues/93097-usg-bio-9-14.
Minority Microbiology Mentor Newsletter
The September issue of the Minority Microbiology Newsletter has been published by the Committee on Microbiological Issues Impacting Minorities (CMIIM). You can read the newsletter by going to this link: http://www.asm.org/index.php/public-policy/135-policy/documents/newsletters/minority-microbiology-mentor-newsletter/93129-mmm-9-14.

ASM NEWS, JOURNAL ARTICLES AND UPDATES

Photo Quizzes
To see this popular feature of The Journal of Clinical Microbiology on the Clinical Microbiology Portal and to test your knowledge, go to https://clinmicro.asm.org/index.php/bench-work-resources/guidelines/22-identifying-organisms/399-photo-quizzes.

ASM Conferences

5th ASM Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria
October 18-21, 2014
San Antonio, TX

3rd ASM Conference on Viral Manipulation of Nuclear Processes
October 30 – November 2, 2014
Washington, DC

1st ASM Conference on Polymicrobial Infections
November 13 – 16, 2014
Washington, DC

For a complete list of upcoming ASM conferences, please see http://conferences.asm.org/.

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Minimize Water Pollution by Natural Growth Microorganisms

 Microorganisms are living things that have a very small size (Kusnadi, et al, 2003). Every single cell microorganisms have the ability to carry out daily activities, among others, may be able to grow, produce energy and reproduce by itself. Microorganisms have a high metabolic flexibility due to these microorganisms have to have a great ability to adapt so that if there is a high interaction with the environment leads to a high conversion of the substance as well. However, because of its small size, then there is no place to store enzymes that have been generated. Thus the enzyme is not required will not be stored in the form of persediaan.enzim-specific enzymes necessary for perngolahan foodstuffs will be produced if the existing food ingredients. These microorganisms also does not require a large tembat, easily grown in artificial media, and pembiakannya relatively fast rate (Darkuni, 2001). Therefore these activities, then each microorganism has a role in life, whether adverse or favorable. Figure: Example of Microorganisms (http://www.google_image.com) Growth is a process of small changes in the original form then becomes large. Related to an increased growth of the individual. Growth in general depends on the material conditions of food and the environment. If the food and the environmental conditions suitable for the microorganisms, the microorganisms will grow with a relatively short time and perfect. The growth of single-celled microorganisms that differ from multicellular microorganisms (multicellular). In single-celled microorganisms (unicellular) growth characterized by increasing the cell. Every single cell after reaching a certain size will split into a complete microorganisms, has the shape and the same physiological properties.

 


Mikroorganisme (http://www.google_image.com)

The growth of living things, can be viewed from two aspects, ie, growth of individual sei and growth as a population group. Cell growth is defined as the addition of volume as well as other parts of the cell, which is defined as well as the addition of kuantiatas content and content in his cell. Population growth is a result of the growth of the individual, eg from one cell becomes two, two become four, four become eight, and so on until the amount to much. In microorganisms, the growth of the individual (cell) can be transformed directly into population growth. So that the boundary between the individual cell growth as well as the unity of the population that then happens sometimes because of too rapid change, it is difficult to be observed and distinguished. In the bacterial population growth, for example, is a depiction of a cell number or cell mass that occurs at a given time. Sometimes it was found that the concentration of the cells according to the number of cells per unit volume, while the cell density is the amount of matter per unit volume. Bacterial growth in static multiply will follow the curve of growth. If the bacteria are grown in a solution multiply, the bacteria will continue to grow until one reaches the minimum and growth factors is limited. The growth of the bacteria multiply easily be expressed graphically by logaritme number of living cells over time.

Picture: Water Pollution  

A growth curve has a sigmoid shape and can be divided into several stages of growth. Water Pollution Water pollution is a change of state in a water reservoirs such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activity. Lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater is an important part in the human life cycle and is one part of the hydrological cycle. In addition to also drain the drain water sediment and pollutants. A wide variety of very helpful functions of human life. Utilization of the largest lakes, rivers, oceans and ground water is for agricultural irrigation, drinking water raw materials, as the rain sewer water and waste water, even real potential as a tourist attraction. Water pollution can be caused by many things and have different characteristics that increased nutrient content can lead to eutrophication, organic waste such as sewage (sewage) causes an increase in oxygen demand in water accept that leads to reduced oxygen that can have a serious impact on the whole ecosystems, industries dispose of various kinds of pollutants into the wastewater such as heavy metals, organic toxins, oils, nutrients and solids. The waste water has thermal effects, especially those issued by power plants, which can also reduce oxygen in the water, such as plant waste that flows into the river.

Minimizing Techniques of Water Pollution by Microorganisms Nature has a natural wastewater treatment mechanism. However, because of the ecological damage caused by pollution, natural treatment is not going well. Therefore, in addition to support adequate sanitation, sewage treatment necessary to facilitate the natural process of the waste completely. One technique to minimize water pollution is the oxidation pond. The oxidation pond is usually used for waste water purification process after a preliminary process. Its main function is to decrease the content of bacteria in the waste water after treatment. Picture: Design Swimming Oxidation Shape Swimming Oxidation: Aerobic Pond, is a form of biological treatment simplest. This form of treatment requires a large area and shallow depth. Aerobic conditions are maintained by the presence of algae and bakteri.Ada 2 types, namely: a. Type High Rate: – With a depth of 15-45 cm – Maximize algae production b. Oxidation or Stabilization Pond – With a depth of 1.5 m – Maximize the concentration of oxygen by stirring periodically with a pump or surface aeration. The principle of the processing of organic materials such as oxidized by aerobic bacteria and fakultatis using oxygen produced by algae. aerated Lagoon Is the development of aerobic pond is by installing surface aerator to address odor and a high organic load.

The process is in principle similar to the activated sludge, the difference in depths shallower. All substances are maintained in a state of suspended solids. No resikkulasi sludge. Followed by the deposition of a large tank. Facultative Pond, with a depth of 1-2.5 m.Kedalaman divided into three zones, namely: aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic. Pond system (system pattern) or often referred to as oxidation pond is one type of technology aerobic biological wastewater treatment. Technology in the form of wastewater treatment reactor aerobic biological simplest and oldest as well as the development of disposal of liquid waste directly into water bodies. This reactor unusual shaped pool, from which excavated soil and waste water put into it with a certain residence time (about 7-10 days. Depth of the pond is no more than 1.0 m (0.4 to 1.0 m). Majority of liquid waste can be dealt with easily with biological systems because of the main pollutants in the form of organic matter, such as for example, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and vitamins. pollutants are generally in the form of suspended or dissolved. aerobic treatment principle in question is perfectly outlines organic compounds derived of the waste in a relatively short period of time. decomposition is done primarily by bacteria and it is influenced by a number of sources of nutrients and oxygen amount. Fulfillment of oxygen can be obtained from the absorption to the surface of the water in the pool through the process of diffusion, the presence of mixing or stirring on the surface of the pond due to influence of surface winds and large enough pool and photosynthesis of algae presence. Picture: Swimming oxidation and perobakan mechanism of organic matter in the pond system. The oxidation pond is also known as stabilization ponds or lagoons. In the oxidation of a pool of heterotrophic bacteria degrade organic matter in the dirt that causes the production of cellular materials and minerals. This production supports the growth of algae in the oxidation pond. Population growth of algae allows furthur decomposition of organic matter by producing oxygen. The oxygen production recharge of oxygen used by heterotrophic bacteria .. Usually an oxidation should be less than 10 meters to support algae growth .. In addition, the use of an oxidation largely confined to the warmer climates because they are strongly influenced by seasonal temperature changes. Oxidation pond also tend to fill up, because the deposition of bacterial and algal cells formed during the decomposition of the waste. The use of an oxidation largely confined to the warmer climates because they are strongly influenced by seasonal temperature changes. Oxidation pond also tend to fill up, because the deposition of bacterial and algal cells formed during the decomposition of the waste. Various types of microorganisms play a role in the reform process, not limited to the type of aerobic microorganisms, but also anaerobic microorganisms. Aerobic and aerobic heterotrophic organisms play a role in the process of conversion of organic matter; autotrophs organisms (phytoplankton, algae, aquatic plants) take inorganic materials (nitrate and phosphate) through the process fotosintetsis. Due to the length of time to stay liquid waste, then organisms with high generation time (zooplankton, insect larvae, water fleas, small fish) can also be grow and develop in the pond system. The active living organisms in the water or on the bottom of the pool. The composition of the organism is dependent on the air temperature, the supply of oxygen, sunlight, type and concentration of substrate. The limiting factor is an oxygen supply system. Pond systems are generally designed for low loading rate so that the rate of supply of oxygen from atmospheric oxygen sufficient for bacteria, and at least the upper surface of the pond is always under aerobic conditions, as oxygen supply is a limiting factor, serine loading system is based on pond surface area and expressed as P – BOD / m and not based on the volume of the pond or the amount of biomass. Pond systems are generally designed board maximum depth 1.0 to 1.5 m, so the lighting and stirring by wind CALIP. Hydraulic residence time of about 20 days in the pool. It is advisable to divide the pool into three sections, each section so that the organism can grow at its optimum and the reform process is faster. Fulfillment of oxygen can be obtained from: The absorption of water in the pond to the surface through the process of diffusion, the presence of mixing / agitation on the surface of the pond due to the influence of wind and the surface of the pond is large enough, the photosynthesis of algae presence.

 

USE OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE FIELD OF MEDICINE

 INTRODUCTION

Microorganisms are living things that have a very small size. Every single cell microorganisms have the ability to carry out daily activities, among others, may experience growth, generate energy and reproduce by itself. Microorganisms have a high metabolic flexibility due to these microorganisms have to have a great ability to adapt so that if there is a high interaction with the environment leads to a high conversion of the substance as well. In the medical field, the use of microorganisms in the past evidenced among other things by the discovery of vaccines, antibiotics, and insulin by means of biotechnology, although still in limited quantities due to the fermentation process is not perfect. Significant changes occurred after the discovery by Louis Pasteur bioreactor. With this tool, the production of antibiotics and vaccines can be done in bulk. At this time, biotechnology is growing very rapidly, especially in developed countries. Progress is marked by the discovery of a variety of technologies such as genetic engineering, tissue culture, recombinant DNA, stem cell proliferation, cloning, and others. Biotechnology is the integrated use of the discipline of biochemistry, microbiology, and engineering sciences with the help of microbes, or jarirang cells and organisms in the technological and industrial applicability.

 

This technology allows us to obtain the cure genetic diseases or chronic, incurable, such as cancer or AIDS. This technology is a form of a new breakthrough for utilizing microorganisms in the field of medicine. Countries with small areas, such as Israel, Japan, Thailand, and Singapore, has been very much to develop this field. In addition, developed countries, such as UK, USA, Germany, Australia, and Japan has long held an integrated research in the field of biotechnology and genetic engineering, even they have to sell new products with patents from the biotech and genetic engineering (especially in medicine and pharmacy), such as antibodies, drugs, hormones-hormones, enzymes, cosmetics materials, bacteria, cloning, IVF and so on.   Technology Utilization microorganisms Along with the development of science, the use of microorganisms in medicine began to be developed. One of the techniques or the use of microorganisms way is by means of biotechnology. Experts have begun again to develop biotechnology to utilize scientific principles through research. In the attempt of modern biotechnology can produce products effectively and efficiently.

 

Modern biotechnology is biotechnology or engineering based on the manipulation of DNA, in addition to utilizing the basic microbiology and biokimia.Aplikasi modern biotechnology also includes various aspects of human life, for example in the aspect of food, agriculture, animal husbandry, to health and medicine. The characteristics of the use of microorganisms, namely the use of microorganisms as agents, the use of genetic engineering, production of hormones, enzin, antibiotics, gas metahana, MSG, and others, and supported by other disciplines such as biochemistry, chemical engineering. In addition, use of the microorganism can also be done with genetic engineering technology. Genetic Engineering

Genetic engineering is a way of manipulating genes to produce new ones with the desired properties. Genetic engineering is also called transplant genes or DNA recombination. DNA used in genetic engineering to combine the properties of living things. That’s because the DNA of every living being has the same structure, so it can be recommended. Furthermore, the DNA will set the properties of living beings for generations. To change a cell’s DNA can be done through many ways, for example through the nucleus transplantation, cell fusion, plasmid technology, and DNA recombination. Genetic engineering in the medical sector is very large and important influence. For example, people with diabetes are now able to live like normal people, as always injected recombinant insulin and blood sugar measuring device that uses recombinant enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. Cancer patients increasingly longer life expectancy thanks to recombinant erythropoietin, colony stimulating factor grow recombinant spur growth of blood cells after chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
TRANSPLANTATION CORE
Heart transplantation is the transfer of a nucleus from a cell to another cell in order to obtain a new individual in accordance with the nature of the core receives. Heart transplant ever performed on frog cells. Cell nucleus is transferred nucleus of intestinal cells that are diploid frog. The cell nucleus is inserted into the ovum without a nucleus, forming a diploid ovum with the nucleus. After being given a new core, ovum divides repeatedly by mitosis, forming a morula develops into a blastula. The blastula then cut into many cells and taken the point. Then the cores are inserted into the core of the ovum without the other. Ultimately formed nucleated diploid ova in large quantities. Each ovum will develop into a new individual by nature and of the same sex.
FUSION SEL / hybridoma

Cell fusion is the fusion of two cells either from the same or different species in order to form hybrid cells or hybridomas. Cell fusion preceded by a widening of the two cell membranes and cytoplasm followed by smelting (plasmogami) and smelting cell nucleus (kariogami). Benefits of cell fusion, among others, for mapping chromosomes, making monoclonal antibodies, and form a new species. In the cell fusion is necessary to:      Cell gene source (source ideal properties)      Container cells (cells capable of rapidly dividing)      Fusigen (substances that speed up cell fusion).

 

TECHNOLOGY plasmid

 

Plasmids are small circular DNA present in the bacterial or yeast cells outside the chromosomes. The properties of plasmids, among others:      a DNA molecule containing a particular gene      can self applicate      can be transferred to other bacterial cells      properties of plasmids in the same bacterial offspring with the parent plasmid. Due to the properties mentioned above is used as a vector or a plasmid gene transfer into target cells. Besides having chromosomal DNA, bacteria also have DNA-mosom nonkro. Nonkromosom DNA and the circular shape is also located outside the chromosomal DNA. Nonkromosom circular DNA known as plasmids. About 1/1000 the size of the plasmid DNA Klai kro-mosom. Plasmid contains genes resistant gene antobiotik tertertu example, pathogen genes. As with other DNA, plasmids are able to replicate and establish themselves in large quantities. In bacterial cells can form plasmid 10-20. DNA recombination The process of connecting the DNA called DNA recombination. Because the goal is to connect the DNA recombination genes in the DNA of the gene is called recombination. DNA recombination is divided into two, namely natural and artificial. Natural that the crossovers, transduction, transformation. While Made with DNA splicing in vitro The reason may be due to DNA recombination DNA structure all the same species so that the DNA can be spliced​​-connect. Found enzyme cutting and fitting making it easier for the gene to be expressed in any cell. Factors

 

Recombinant DNA:

 

  Enzymes (cutting and fitting)      vector      Agent (target cells) Cutting enzyme known as restriction endonucleases. The function of this enzyme is to cut up a long thread of DNA that can be spliced ​​into short-degan enzyme reconnect connector, the other name of the enzyme is an enzyme ligase junction. Ligase enzyme serves to connect the strands of nucleotide The nature of ligase enzyme, DNA Ligase can not connect single-stranded DNA, so it can only be used in the DNA double because catalyzes phosphodiester bond between two chains of DNA Vector, cloned DNA will need transportation to get to the pembiakannya, transportation called cloning vehicle or vector. Vectors are used usually in the form of plasmids Agent / target cell used is usually in the form of microbes, bacteria generally. For example, E. coli. Bacteria that have been infected multiply plasmid ‘deposit’ when reproducing. The reason for the selection of bacterial DNA recombination because of high power and rapid reproduction of bacteria in order to obtain the number of offspring that a lot in a short time, is a plasmid that contains many microbes, and does not contain harmful genes.

 

DNA recombination process:

 

The patients with diabetes mellitus (diabetes) require insulin intake.      Human insulin gene of the islets of Langerhans is taken then connected into a bacterial plasmid that has been cut by restriction endonucleases form Kimera (recombinant DNA).      Kimera incorporated into the agent (E. coli) and connected by the enzyme ligase to propagated Biotechnology in the Field of Medicine  Biotechnology has an important role in the field of medicine, for example in the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormone synthesis. MAKING monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibodies are made by way of merger or fusion of the two types of cells, namely lymphocytes B cells that produce antibodies to the cancer cells (myeloma cells) that can live and divide continuously. The result of the fusion between the B lymphocyte cells with cancer cells in vitro is called hybridomas. Act as antigens that will produce anti-bodies is the spleen. Functions such as the diagnosis of disease and pregnancy. Benefits of monoclonal antibodies, among others: To detect chorionic gonadotropin hormone levels in the urine of pregnant women.      Toxins bind and disable it.      Prevent rejection of the transplanted tissue of the body against another.

 

GENE THERAPY

Gene therapy is a therapeutic technique used to repair mutant genes (abnormal / disabled) who is responsible for the occurrence of a disease. Initially, gene therapy was created to treat a hereditary disease (genetic) that occurs because of a mutation in a single gene, such as cystic fibrosis disease. The use of gene therapy in these diseases is done by inserting a normal gene into selyang specific mutant genes. Then developing gene therapy to treat diseases caused by mutations in many genes, such as cancer and HIV. In addition to inserting a normal gene into the mutant cells, other mechanisms of gene therapy that can be used is to perform homologous recombination to eliminate the abnormal gene with a normal gene, preventing the abnormal gene expression through gene damping techniques, and doing so selective mutation behind the abnormal gene can function normally again. One example microorganisms used in gene therapy is adeno virus. Adeno virus is a group of viruses that can create double-stranded DNA of the genome can be incorporated with the host cell chromosome, for example cancer cells. This virus has a better ability to recognize cancer cells, penetrate and transfer genetic material into it. Broadly speaking there are two kinds of ways that can be used to insert new genes into a cell:      In ex vivo.

 

 

 

Most blood cells or bone marrow of patients taken to be cultured in the laboratory. Cells were given a virus adeno virus carrying the new gene. Adeno virus entry into cells and “fired” the new gene into the target cell DNA chain. The cell was cultured in the laboratory in a few moments. After gene completely fused with cells, then the cells were returned to the patient’s body by injection into a vein.      In vivo. Adeno virus carrying the new gene is injected into the patient’s body. Adeno virus is programmed to seek out and attack the targeted cells eg cancer cells by firing a new gene into a cell carrying. The role of this virus is sometimes replaced by a plasmid vector liposomes or artificial VACCINE The vaccine is the antigenic material used to produce active immunity to a disease that can prevent or reduce the effects of infection by organisms natural or “wild”. Vaccines can be either viral or bacterial strains that have been attenuated so as not to cause disease.

 

Vaccines can also be a dead organism or the results of purification (proteins, peptides, virus-like particles, etc.). The vaccine will prepare the immune system of a human or animal to survive the attack of certain pathogens, especially bacteria, viruses, or toxins. Vaccines can also help the immune system to fight the degenerative cells (cancer). Examples are easily developed vaccine is the manufacture of inactivated polio virus. The microorganisms used were poliovirus is a small RNA virus that consists of three distinct and highly contagious strain. The virus will attack the nervous system and paralysis can occur in a matter of hours. Polio attack regardless of age, fifty percent of cases occur in children aged between 3 to 5 years.

 

 

 

The incubation period of polio from the first symptoms ranged from 3 to 35 days. Inactivated polio vaccine production process is through the following steps: 1 Preparation of the medium (vero cell) for propagating viruses 2 Planting / virus inoculation 3 Harvesting virus 4 Purification of virus 5. inactivation / attenuation of virus Antibodies Antibodies are a class of compounds, natural or synthetic, which has the effect of suppressing or stopping a biochemical processes in the organism, especially in the process of infection by bacteria. The use of antibiotics in particular with regard to the treatment of infectious diseases, although in biotechnology and genetic engineering are also used as a means of selection against mutants or transformants.

 

ANTIBODI

Antibiotics work as pesticides by hitting or breaking the chain of metabolism, it’s just that the target is bacteria. Antibiotics differ with disinfectant because of the way it works. Desifektan kill germs by creating an unnatural environment for germs to live. Examples of bacteria that produce antibiotics are cryzogenum Penicillium fungus that produces penicillin antibiotic. Taxonomy of these fungi are: Kingdom: Fungi Division: Ascomycotina Class: Eurotiomycetes Order: Moniliales Family: Moniliceae Genus: Penicillium Species: Penicillium cryzogenum (formerly known as Penicillium notatum) Cryzogenum Penicillium is one of the best lipase producers among fungi in the genus other than that, Penicillium cryzogenum has high enzymatic activity and has the ability to produce alpha-amylase and capable of producing antibiotic known as penicillin. Merpakan penicillin β-lactam antibiotic that has the formula R-C9H11N2O4S, with R is a side chain beragam.

 

Penicillium cryzogenum a source for the production of penicillin, the first antibiotic. Penicillin worked against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus danPneumacoccus. The workings of penicillin is to disrupt peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls. Crosslinking during the formation of the bacterial peptidoglycan happens prevented by penicillin by inhibiting the transpeptidase enzyme with β-lactam other words will be bound to the transpeptidase enzyme associated with bacterial peptidoglycan molecules that eventually cause defects in the cell wall of bacteria. Then there taking excess water and weaken the cell wall of bacteria when bacterial cells divide causing them to rupture (cell lysis) and the bacteria eventually die. For gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mechanism is different from the mechanism of action on gram-positive bacteria.

 

The thing that distinguishes the mechanism of action on gram positive and negative bacteria is the gram-positive bacteria, after the loss of the cell wall would be the protoplast, whereas the gram-negative bacteria will be sferoplas. Protoplasts and this is what will sferoplas lysis (rupture). Here’s a picture of the protoplast and sferoplas broke and penicillin nucleus The clinical usefulness of penicillin, among others:      Treatment of infectious diseases by germs clostridia, such as Blackleg (Cl.Chauvoei), malignant edema (Cl. Septicum, Cl. Boutvuur), and tetanus (Cl. Tetani).      Treatment of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)      Treatment of swine erysipelas (Erisipilothrix rhusiopathiae)      Corynebacterium renale infections, which cause pyelonephritis, required high doses.      For the treatment of lumpy jaw (actinomycosis by Actinomyces bovis) in cattle.      For the treatment of wooden tongue (Actinobacillus lignieresi) in cattle      Leptospira infection, penicillin combined with strptomisin.

 

MAKING HORMONES With DNA engineering,

 

today have used microorganisms to produce hormones. The hormones that have been produced, such as insulin, growth hormone, cortisone, and human insulin testosteron.Contoh generated with the help of Escherechia coli. Production of insulin can be done by transplanting genes controlling these hormones into bacterial plasmids. The success of moving the human insulin gene into bacteria can now be obtained, namely through the bacteria that grows with fermentation method. Plasmid technique aims to make hormones and antibodies. For example to make the hormone insulin with plasmid techniques. Genes / DNA cut with a restriction enzyme Endonucleases Gene / DNA spliced ​​with Enzymes Ligases.

 

Insulin-Making Process

 

In the insulin-making process, the first step is to isolate plasmid from E. coli. Plasmids are one of the bacterium’s genetic material in the form of small circular DNA strands. In addition to plasmids, the bacteria also has a chromosome. The uniqueness of this plasmid is able to be out of the body of bacteria, and often exchanged between bacteria.      In the second step of this plasmid was isolated using a cut on a particular segment of restriction endonucleases. Meanwhile darisel DNA isolated pancreas was cut to a segment of the coding segment to take insulin. Cutting is done with the same enzymes.      DNA code is connected to insulin plasmid using ligase enzimDNA assistance. The result is a combination of insulin with plasmid DNA code of a bacterium called recombinant DNA.      Recombinant DNA is formed is inserted back into the bacterial cell.      When E. coli bacteria multiply, it will produce colonies of bacteria that have recombinant DNA. After growing form colonies, bacteria containing recombinant DNA identified using probes. The probe is RNA chain or single chain DNA labeled radioactive material or a fluorescent material and can be paired with certain nitrogenous bases of DNA recombinant.

 

At this step of making insulin probe used was Arnd of the gene encoding human pancreatic insulin. To choose which bacterial colonies containing recombinant DNA, the way is to put the bacteria on filter paper and then irradiated with ultraviolet. Bacteria that have been given recombinant DNA and the probe will appear to glow. Well, the bacteria that glow is then isolated to create a pure strain of recombinant DNA. In metabolism, these bacteria will produce the hormone insulin. Islamic Study on Biotechnology in the Field of Medicine Al-Baqarah 164 Meaning: Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth, the alternation of night and day, a seagoing ship carrying what is useful to man, and what Allah sends down from the sky in the form of water, then the water that He turn the earth after its death (dry) – her and He spread on earth was all kinds of animals, and the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth; indeed (are) signs (oneness and greatness of Allah) for people who reflect. In a famous hadith of the Prophet also declared that encourages us to seek knowledge even to China though. And God also encourages us to continue to read and learn what is found by humans. As was spoken by God in the Quran Surah Al Alaq verse 1-5: Meaning: Read with (call) the name of your Lord Creator, He has created man from a clot. Read, and your Lord is the Most merciful, He Who taught (man) with perantaran kalam, He taught man what he did not know. Of those, than to learn and understand the science, Islam also places great emphasis on the implications of the science, because the science is there to facilitate and improve the quality of human life itself. conclusion Utilization of microorganisms in medicine began to be developed. One of the techniques or the use of microorganisms way is by means of biotechnology. Experts have begun again to develop biotechnology to utilize scientific principles through research. In the attempt of modern biotechnology can produce products effectively and efficiently. Modern biotechnology is biotechnology or engineering based on the manipulation of DNA, in addition to utilizing the basic microbiology and biochemistry. Biotechnology has an important role in the field of medicine, for example in the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormone synthesis.

 

Kajian Islam tentang Bioteknologi dalam Bidang Kedokteran

Al-Baqarah 164

Artinya : Sesungguhnya dalam penciptaan langit dan bumi, silih bergantinya malam dan siang, bahtera yang berlayar di laut membawa apa yang berguna bagi manusia, dan apa yang Allah turunkan dari langit berupa air, lalu dengan air itu Dia hidupkan bumi sesudah mati (kering)-nya dan Dia sebarkan di bumi itu segala jenis hewan, dan pengisaran angin dan awan yang dikendalikan antara langit dan bumi; sungguh (terdapat) tanda-tanda (keesaan dan kebesaran Allah) bagi kaum yang memikirkan.

Dalam hadits yang masyhur pun dinyatakan bahwa Rasulullah Saw menganjurkan kita untuk menuntut ilmu bahkan sampai ke negeri Cina sekalipun. Dan Allah juga menganjurkan kita untuk terus membaca dan mempelajari apa yang di temukan oleh manusia. Seperti yang difirmankan oleh Allah SWT dalam Al-Quran surat Al Alaq ayat 1-5 :

Artinya: Bacalah dengan (menyebut) nama Tuhanmu yang Menciptakan, Dia telah menciptakan manusia dari segumpal darah. Bacalah, dan Tuhanmulah yang Maha pemurah, Yang mengajar (manusia) dengan perantaran kalam, Dia mengajar kepada manusia apa yang tidak diketahuinya.

Dari semua itu, selain belajar dan memahami suatu ilmu, islam pun sangat menekankan pada implikasi dari ilmu tersebut, karena ilmu tersebut ada untuk memudahkan dan meningkatkan kulitas hidup manusia itu sendiri.

Kesimpulan

Pemanfaatan mikroorganisme dalam bidang kedokteran mulai dikembangkan. Salah satu teknik atau cara pemanfaatan mikroorganisme adalah dengan cara bioteknologi. Para ahli telah mulai lagi mengembangkan bioteknologi dengan memanfaatkan prinsip-prinsip ilmiah melalui penelitian. Dalam bioteknologi modern orang berupaya dapat menghasilkan produk secara efektif dan efisien. Bioteknologi modern merupakan bioteknologi yang didasarkan pada manipulasi atau rekayasa DNA, selain memanfaatkan dasar mikrobiologi dan biokimia. Bioteknologi mempunyai peran penting dalam bidang kedokteran, misalnya dalam pembuatan antibodi monoklonal, terapi gen, vaksin, antibiotika, dan pembuatan hormon.

 

Benefit Microbiology For Nursing

Basic knowledge of microbiology and parasitology in nursing is required for the following reasons: One must have an idea of how infections spread Someone must have an idea of ​​how the spread of infection Which surfaces are most susceptible to infectious agents surfaces most susceptible to infectious agents How do you keep aseptic instruments and contaminant-free How do you maintain aseptic instruments and free of contaminants Recognize the symptoms of an infection Recognizing the symptoms of infection How to carefully take care of an open wound without infecting it How carefully treating open wounds without infecting it

 

Recognize the type of infection as soon as it Occurs Identify the type of infection occurs soon after Teaching nurses the importance of microbiology for infection control Article Abstract: Article Abstract: The better knowledge of microbiology, the which would help nurses to practice more effective infection control, is Discussed. A better knowledge of microbiology, which will help nurses to more effective infection control practices, are discussed. A sound knowledge of microbiology may Ensure they are better equipped to teach families the different ways to minimize Patients’ risk of infection, and also about its Consequences. A knowledge of microbiology can ensure they are better prepared to teach families of different ways to minimize the patient’s risk of infection, and also about its consequences.

BENEFITS OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE FIELD OF PHARMACY

The human race has long been utilizing microorganisms to produce useful products. For example, in the years around 6000 BC Sumerian and Babylonian societies have made use of yeast to make beer, while the Egyptian society in the year 4000 BC have used yeast to acidify ropti. masyarakatBabilonia also have the knowledge to change the ethanol in beer to acetic acid (vinegar). Natural products biosynthesized by microorganisms becomes very pnting. Praduk anticoagulants, antidepressants, vasodilators, her4bisida, insecticides, plant hormones, enzymes, and enzyme inhibitors have been isolated from microorganisms. Microorganism is more commonly used to generate enzymes such as amylase enzyme used to make beer, bread, and memperoduksi textiles, as well as the protease enzyme that is used to mengempukkan meat, soften the skin, making detergents and cheese. Food industry, oil, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals also use mikroorganismeuntuk generate polysaccharides. Xanthomonas campestris produces a polysaccharide known as coconut milk to stabilize food ingredients, as a binding agent for a variety of pharmaceutical products, as well as for coloring textiles. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, when grown on media containing sucrose to produce dextran, a polysaccharide yangb can be used as a molecular sieve to separate molecules in a chromatography column.

Mikrobilogi modern pharmacy developed after World War 2 with dimulainyaproduk antibiotics. The world’s supply of pharmaceutical products including antibiotics, steroids, vitamins, vaccines, amino acids, and hormones are produced in a number of human beasr by microorganisms. Streptomyces hydroscopius choose a different strain to membuata nearly 200 different antibiotics. Antibiotics dibuata basically an industrial scale by means of inoculation of spores of fungi or streptomycetes in a growth medium and incubating with good aeration. After reaching a sufficient concentration, soluble extracted, dipresitipasi and standard procedures required by other industries. 1 Product antibiotics Antibiotic production is done on a large scale in the tank fernentasi with large size. For example Penicillium chrysogenum grown in 100,000-liter fermenters for approximately 200 hours. At first spore suspension of P. chrysogenum was grown in a nutrient medium solution. The cultures were incubated for 24 hours at a temperature of 24 ° C and subsequently transferred to the inoculum tank. Digojlok inoculum tank regularly to get good aeration for one to two days. In the process of penicillin production, nutrient medium containing phenylacetic acid sugar added to continuously. Phenylacetic acid is used to make the benzyl side chain of penicillin G. Penicillin G was extracted from the filtrate and crystallized. To make a semisynthetic penicillin, penicillin G mixed with bacteria that secrete enzymes asilase. This enzyme will remove the benzyl group of penicillin G and turn it into a 6-aminopebicillanic acid (6-APA). Aminopenicilanic acid is a molecule used to make other types of penicillin. These various chemical groups added padaaminopenicillanic Something similar happened to cephalosporin C by Cephalosporium acremonium produced.

Sepalosporin C molecules can transformed by removing the side chain α-aminodipic acid and adding a new group which has a wider range of antibacterial. Strains of Streptomyces griseus and other Actinomycetes produce streptomycin and other antibiotics trending. S. griseus spores inoculated into the culture medium to obtain mycelial growth with high biomass before it is put into the tank inoculum. Basal medium containing streptomycin to praduksi soy starch as a nitrogen source, glucose as carbon source, and NaCl. The optimum temperature range for this fermentation process at 28 ° C, the stirring speed and high aeration required to obtain maximum production of streptomycin. The fermentation process takes approximately 10 days to the amount of harvested ranged streptomisinyang 1g / L. 2 Production of steroids Steroid hormones are very important role in the health world. For example, cortisone and other steroids can serupadiketahui used to treat symptoms associated with allergies and various oral inflammatory response and to treat imbalances homonal. Synthesis of steroids such as kotison require more than 35 steps, so it is very expensive to diperoduksi steroid chemically. For example, cortisone can be synthesized from the acid deoksikolat through 37 steps, some of which require temperature and pressure conditions are extreme, with costs ranging from more than $ 200 pergram.

The main difficulty in the synthesis of cortisone is the introduction of oxygen atoms in the steroid ring number 11. This can be overcome * with the use of microorganisms. The use of microorganisms to replace this chemical process known as biokomversi. Fungi form Rhizopuz arrhizus menghidroksilasi progesterone steroid hydrocortisone koteksolon to form by introducing oxygen at position number 11. Another form of transformation of the steroid nucleus carried by mikroorganosme through the process of hydrogenation, hydrogenated, epoxidation, and the addition and removal of the side chain. The use of cortisone production mikroorganismepada can lower production costs as much as 400 times, so the price kotisondi united states pergram less than $ 50, compared to the original price of $ 200. 3 Production of vaccines The use of vaccines is very important to prevent various diseases. Development and production of vaccines is one of the important tasks pharmaceutical industry. Vaccine production include culturing microorganisms which have the property antigenikyang required to launch a primary immune response. The vaccine was produced by a mutant strain of virulent pathogens without losing antigen required to induce an immune response. The development of biotechnology enables production throughout the entire new vaccine. Some of the new vaccine is intended for new targets, and some more effective and have fewer side effects than traditional vaccines available today. To produce vaccines against diseases caused by viruses, virus strains were grown using chicken eggs tertunas.

Individuals who have an allergy to chicken eggs can not be given the vaccine were made ​​this way. The vaccine virus can also be produced through tissue culture. For example, traditional rabies vaccine produced in duck eggs tertunas and have side effects that are very painful. The vaccine is replaced by tissue culture vaccine production by human fibroblasts that have fewer side effects. Production of the vaccine is effective in preventing infeksioleh terhadapyang bacteria, fungi, and protozoa involves a strain of microorganism growth on artificial media that minimizes disruption alergi.vaksin beruparespons yng commercial diproduksisecara should continue to be tested and standardized before use, resulting in the outbreak (epidemic) of disease caused by the introduction of such vaccines that have occurred in 1976 due to inadequate vaccine swine influenza can be avoided. 4 Production of vitamins and amino acids Vitamins are essential nutrients for the human factor. Some vitamins can be produced by fermentation of microorganisms, and is used as a dietary supplement. For example, vitamin B12 can be produced as a by-product in the fermentation of antibiotics olehStreptomyces. Vitamn B12 was also obtained from the fermentation of Paracoccus denitrificans Propionibacteriaum shermaniiatau. Riboflavin can be produced from the fermentation of a wide variety of microorganisms, such as Clostridium bacteria and fungi Ashbya gossypii or Eremothecium ashbyi.

The main problem of commercial production of amino acids by fermentation of microorganisms is a natural control mechanism that limits the number of microorganisms arrangement of amino acids produced and released from the cell. This problem can be overcome by the strain of genetically engineered microorganisms that do not have control mechanisms such as the original strain (wild-type) Humans need different kinds of amino acids, including lysine. The concentration of lysine in the grain is not enough to meet the nutritional needs of humans. Lysine is produced by fermentation of microorganisms, so it can be used as a food supplement for humans and as supplemental material to the cereal. Methionine is also produced through chemical synthesis and used as a dietary supplement. Lysine production from carbohydrates using Corynebactrerium glutamicum, which requires a auksotrof homoserin. Cane molasses is commonly used as a substrate, and the pH is kept neutral by adding ammonia or urea. By the time the sugar is metabolized, lysine will still accumulate on the media and homoserin synthesis is inhibited at the stage of homoserin dihidrogenase. Glutamic acid (glutamic acid) used as monosodium glutamate (MSG), food flavoring ingredient. L-glutamic acid and MSG can be produced through the fermentation of a strain Brevibacterium, and Corynebacterium Arthobacter. Culture of Corynebacterium glutamicum and Brevibacterium flavum MSG is used to produce on a large scale.

The fermentation process requires a glucose-mineral salts medium by adding urea as a nitrogen source periodically during the fermentation process. Maintained pH value ranging 6-8, and 30 ° C temeratur 5 Production of organic acids Some organic acids such as acetic acid, glikonat acid, citric acid, gibberellic acid, and lactic acid by fermentation of microorganisms dhasilkan. Organic acids such as are used in the food industry, for example as a food preservative. Olehberbagai diperoduksi gluconic acid bacteria including species acetobaterdan by some functions like penisilium and aspergillus. Aspergillus neger glkosa oxidize into gluconic acid in a single enzymatic reaction of glucose oxidase enzyme leh. Gluconic acid has a variety of uses, including: Calcium gluconate is used as a pharmaceutical produ to supply the calcium in the body. Ferrous glukonate used as intake of iron to treat anemia. Gluconic acid in dishwashing detergent to prevent stains on the glass surface due to precipitation of calcium and magnesium salts Citric acid is produced by aspergillusniger with molasses as fermentation substrate. Citric acid is used as an additive in foods, especially soft drinks.

Transformation of citric acid by Aspergillus terreus can be used to produce acid in a two-step reaction itokonat. The first step is a change of citric acid into cis-akonitat acid through hydroxylation process, and the second step is a step-carboxylation-cis acid akonitat into itaconic acid. The fermentation process requires a pH range at 2.2. At higher pH range, A itokonat acid degrades. Gibberellic acid (Gibberellic acid) produced by the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. fermentation process requiring glucose-mineral salts medium, incubation temperature ranges at 25 ° C with an acidic pH. Gibberelat acid and other gibberellin plant hormones used to increase agricultural productivity, which is a substance supporting plant growth, inflorescence and seed germination, as well as to induce formation of seedless fruit. Lactic acid produced by Lactobacillus delbrueckii, lactobasilus other species, Streptococcus, and leuconustoc. Lactic acid is used to preserve food at penyamkan leather industry and textile industry.

The medium used in the fermentation of lactic acid requires 10-15% glucose, 10% calcium carbonate to neutralize the lactic acid produced, ammonium phosphate, and a small number of sources netrogen. Corn sugar, potato starch and wheat are often used as a source of carbohydrate. Incubation temperature ranges at 45-50 ° C with a pH range between 5.5-6.5. After fermentation for 5-7 days, approximately 90% of the sugar has been converted into lactic acid, calcium carbonate is then added to raise the pH to 10, then heated and filtered fermentation media. This procedure will kill the bacteria, mengkoagulasi protein, eliminating the residual calcium carbonate, and mendokoposisi carbohydrate residues. 6 Production of Enzymes Enzymes are electrically insulated from microorganisms can be applied to a wide range of industries. For example, an enzyme isolated from the proteose cleaning materials. Protease damage and dissolve protein soiling clothes. Enzymes are produced for industrial processes include protease, amylase, glycated isomerase, glucose oxidase, renin, pectinase, and lipase.empat kinds of enzymes that are widely produced by mikroganisme are proteases, glukamilase, α-amylase, and glucose isomerase. Protease is an enzyme that attacks the peptide bonds of protein molecules and form a small peptide fragments. Basillus recombinant strain sp. GX6644 secrete alkaline protease were highly active against the milk protein casein. With the highest activity at pH 11 and a temperature of 40-55 ° C. Other recombinant strains that basillus sp. GX6638 secrete several proteases are active at alkaline pH range is quite broad (8-12). Mempreduksi fungi are species of Aspergillus proteases.

Protease produced by fungi have a wider pH range than diperoduksioleh bacterial proteases. Amylase used in the detergent and the brewing industry. There are several types of amylase, including α-amylase that is used to convert starch into maltose and dextrin, glukamilase which converts starch into glucose. All three enzymes above are used to produce syrup and dextrose from starch. Amylase production using fungiAspergillus sp. Aspergillus oryzae is used to produce amylase of wheat in stationary culture. Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus diastaticus used to produce bacterial amylase. Glucose isomerase to convert glucose into friktosa the two times sweeter than sucrose and 1.5 times sweeter than glucose, so the sweetener fructose is very important in industrimakanan and drinks. This enzyme is produced by Bacillus coagulan, Streptomyces sp. And Nocardia sp. Renin is an enzyme that catalyzes the milk coagulant coagulation of milk in the cheese making industry. This enzyme is produced by Mucor pussilus. Enzymes are also used microorganism role in the production of synthetic polymers.

For example, the plastics industry is currently using chemical methods to reduce oxidant alkene used to produce plastics. Oxidan alkene production of microorganisms involves the action of three enzymes, namely piranose-2-oxidase from fungi oudmansiella mucida, haloperoksidase enzymes from fungi Caldariomyces sp. Dn epoxidase enzyme from falvobacterium sp. In the production of heat stable enzyme, DNA polymerase is crucial in the process of DNA amplification. Polymerase chain reaction is very important for health diagnosis, forensic, and research biology mulekular. Thermus aquacitus culture, and thermophilic microorganisms genetically engineered to mengndung taq DNA polymerase gene from Thermus aquaticus, used to make recombinant DNA polymerase is heat stable, called AmpliTaq. 7 Production of ergot alkaloids Alkaloids, some of which can be used in therapy, generally derived from plants, but ergot alkaloids produced from fungi. Ergot alkaloids were first obtained from sclerotia Ascomycetes, which Claviceps purpurae. The term is used to indicate that ergot alkaloids produced by fungi of this type. Ergot alkaloids are divided into 2 groups based on acid content Lysergic acid and Clavin. Alkaloids glisergat acid is only produced by the genus Claviceps, while Clavin alkaloid found in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Rhizobium. Ergot alkaloids are used to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system. Some Lysergic acid alkaloids such as ergotamine and ergobasin used in the treatment of the content of the uterus to contract during childbirth postpatu uterus to contract. 8 Production of human proteins

The process of genetic engineering microorganisms to improve the utilization of the role of the pharmaceutical industry dlam produce human proteins. Through recombinant DNA techniques, the human DNA sequence encoding a variety of proteins can be combined with genum bacteria, and by growing the bacteria in a fermenter rekonbioanan, then for human proteins can be produced commercially. Insulin is absolutely required by humans. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone that is produced by the islands of Langerhans dipankreas which controls the metabolism of food karbohidrat.dalam dikomfersi into monosaccharides glucose, the principal carbohydrate in the blood. Some carbohydrates such as fructose and cellulose can be used as energy cells but not dikomfersi become glycated and not berpatisipai in regulatory mechanisms of glucose metabolism. Insulin is released by beta cells (β cells) in the pancreas in response to rising blood glucose levels, at the time after eating. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose from the blood for use as an energy source, modified menjdi other necessary molecules, or for storage.

Insulin is also the primary control signal conversion of glycogen to glucose menjdi internal pennyimpanan hearts and muscle cells. If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, the cells do not respond to the presence of insulin (not sensitive or insulin resistant), or if the insulin itself is not produced by the beta cells due risaknya beta cells in the pancreas, the glucose can not be utilized by the body cells or stored in the form of food reserves in maupaun heart muscle cells. As a result of that happening is an increase in blood glucose levels, a decrease in protein synthesis, and impaired metabolic processes in the body. Insulin is necessary for patients with diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder carbohidrat disease, particularly type 1 diabetes mellitus who require exogenous insulin intake. In mulannya, the source of insulin for clinical use in his being derived from the pancreas of cattle, horses, pigs, and ikan.insulinyang obtained from such sources as effective for his being identical to human insulin.

There are only three amino acid differences between bovine insulin with human insulin, and there is only a difference of one amino acid between porcine insulin to human insulin. Caused by an allergic reaction mechanisms arising mengguanakan insulin from animals (cows, pigs, fish, horses maupaun) in the long term, especially people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the insulin of human began to be produced by using genetic engineering techniques. Pharmaceutical companies to conduct United States Eli Lilly, to market the first product of human insulin, Humulin on tahun1982. Human DNA that codes for insulin is cut and pasted into fektor (eg plasmid) were then transformed into Escherichia coli as a host cell. Host cells to grow and reproduce normally, and because there is human DNA is inserted, then the host cell will automatically generate insulinmanusia. A similar process is done on the production of interferon, human growth hormone (tumor necrosis factor, TNF) and interleukin-2 (IL-2). (See picture)

TNF growth hormone used to treat dwarfism disease (midget) due to deficiency of this hormone. IL-2, TNF and IFN is an important component of the natural human immune response, and the production proved to be useful for treating a variety of diseases. For example, IFN is important in the defense against viral infections and the treatment of infections caused by viruses. TNF is a substance naturally produced by the body in small amounts by certain white blood cells called macrophages, function menbunuh some cancer cells and infectious microorganisms without affecting the nomal cells. Another rekombiana products plasminogen activator jaringa (alteplase) is merupakn protein composed of 527 amino acids that are used to treat heart attack patients.

USE OF MICROORGANISMS IN THE FIELD OF MEDICINE

Microorganisms are living things that have a very small size. Every single cell microorganisms have the ability to carry out daily activities, among others, may experience growth, generate energy and reproduce by itself. Microorganisms have a high metabolic flexibility due to these microorganisms have to have a great ability to adapt so that if there is a high interaction with the environment leads to a high conversion of the substance as well. In the medical field, the use of microorganisms in the past evidenced among other things by the discovery of vaccines, antibiotics, and insulin by means of biotechnology, although still in limited quantities due to the fermentation process is not perfect. Significant changes occurred after the discovery by Louis Pasteur bioreactor. With this tool, the production of antibiotics and vaccines can be done in bulk. At this time, biotechnology is growing very rapidly, especially in developed countries. Progress is marked by the discovery of a variety of technologies such as genetic engineering, tissue culture, recombinant DNA, stem cell proliferation, cloning, and others. Biotechnology is the integrated use of the discipline of biochemistry, microbiology, and engineering sciences with the help of microbes, or jarirang cells and organisms in the technological and industrial applicability. This technology allows us to obtain the cure genetic diseases or chronic, incurable, such as cancer or AIDS. This technology is a form of a new breakthrough for utilizing microorganisms in the field of medicine. Countries with small areas, such as Israel, Japan, Thailand, and Singapore, has been very much to develop this field. In addition, developed countries, such as UK, USA, Germany, Australia, and Japan has long held an integrated research in the field of biotechnology and genetic engineering, even they have to sell new products with patents from the biotech and genetic engineering (especially in medicine and pharmacy), such as antibodies, drugs, hormones-hormones, enzymes, cosmetics materials, bacteria, cloning, IVF and so on.   Technology Utilization microorganisms Along with the development of science, the use of microorganisms in medicine began to be developed. One of the techniques or the use of microorganisms way is by means of biotechnology. Experts have begun again to develop biotechnology to utilize scientific principles through research. In the attempt of modern biotechnology can produce products effectively and efficiently. Modern biotechnology is biotechnology or engineering based on the manipulation of DNA, in addition to utilizing the basic microbiology and biochemistry. Modern biotechnology applications also include various aspects of human life, for example in the aspect of food, agriculture, animal husbandry, to health and medicine. The characteristics of the use of microorganisms, namely the use of microorganisms as agents, the use of genetic engineering, production of hormones, enzin, antibiotics, gas metahana, MSG, and others, and supported by other disciplines such as biochemistry, chemical engineering. In addition, use of the microorganism can also be done with genetic engineering technology. Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is a way of manipulating genes to produce new ones with the desired properties. Genetic engineering is also called transplant genes or DNA recombination. DNA used in genetic engineering to combine the properties of living things. That’s because the DNA of every living being has the same structure, so it can be recommended. Furthermore, the DNA will set the properties of living beings for generations. To change a cell’s DNA can be done through many ways, for example through the nucleus transplantation, cell fusion, plasmid technology, and DNA recombination. Genetic engineering in the medical sector is very large and important influence. For example, people with diabetes are now able to live like normal people, as always injected recombinant insulin and blood sugar measuring device that uses recombinant enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. Cancer patients increasingly longer life expectancy thanks to recombinant erythropoietin, colony stimulating factor grow recombinant spur growth of blood cells after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. TRANSPLANTATION CORE Heart transplantation is the transfer of a nucleus from a cell to another cell in order to obtain a new individual in accordance with the nature of the core receives. Heart transplant ever performed on frog cells. Cell nucleus is transferred nucleus of intestinal cells that are diploid frog. The cell nucleus is inserted into the ovum without a nucleus, forming a diploid ovum with the nucleus. After being given a new core, ovum divides repeatedly by mitosis, forming a morula develops into a blastula. The blastula then cut into many cells and taken the point. Then the cores are inserted into the core of the ovum without the other. Ultimately formed nucleated diploid ova in large quantities. Each ovum will develop into a new individual by nature and of the same sex. FUSION SEL / hybridoma Cell fusion is the fusion of two cells either from the same or different species in order to form hybrid cells or hybridomas. Cell fusion preceded by a widening of the two cell membranes and cytoplasm followed by smelting (plasmogami) and smelting cell nucleus (kariogami). Benefits of cell fusion, among others, for mapping chromosomes, making monoclonal antibodies, and form a new species. In the cell fusion is necessary to: Cell gene source (source ideal properties) Container cells (cells capable of rapidly dividing) Fusigen (substances that speed up cell fusion). TECHNOLOGY plasmid Plasmids are small circular DNA present in the bacterial or yeast cells outside the chromosomes. The properties of plasmids, among others: a DNA molecule containing a particular gene can beraplikasi self can be transferred to other bacterial cells properties of plasmids in the same bacterial offspring with the parent plasmid. Due to the properties mentioned above is used as a vector or a plasmid gene transfer into target cells. Besides having chromosomal DNA, bacteria also have DNA-mosom nonkro. Nonkromosom DNA and the circular shape is also located outside the chromosomal DNA. Nonkromosom circular DNA known as plasmids. About 1/1000 the size of the plasmid DNA Klai kro-mosom. Plasmid contains genes resistant gene antobiotik tertertu example, pathogen genes. As with other DNA, plasmids are able to replicate and establish themselves in large quantities. In bacterial cells can form plasmid 10-20. DNA recombination The process of connecting the DNA called DNA recombination. Because the goal is to connect the DNA recombination genes in the DNA of the gene is called recombination. DNA recombination is divided into two, namely natural and artificial. Natural that the crossovers, transduction, transformation. While Made with DNA splicing in vitro The reason may be due to DNA recombination DNA structure all the same species so that the DNA can be spliced​​-connect. Found enzyme cutting and fitting making it easier for the gene to be expressed in any cell. Factors Recombinant DNA: Enzymes (cutting and fitting) vector Agent (target cells) Cutting enzyme known as restriction endonucleases. The function of this enzyme is to cut up a long thread of DNA that can be spliced ​​into short-degan enzyme reconnect connector, the other name of the enzyme is an enzyme ligase junction. Ligase enzyme serves to connect the strands of nucleotide The nature of ligase enzyme, DNA Ligase can not connect single-stranded DNA, so it can only be used in the DNA double because catalyzes phosphodiester bond between two chains of DNA Vector, cloned DNA will need transportation to get to the pembiakannya, transportation called cloning vehicle or vector. Vectors are used usually in the form of plasmids Agent / target cell used is usually in the form of microbes, bacteria generally. For example, E. coli. Bacteria that have been infected multiply plasmid ‘deposit’ when reproducing. The reason for the selection of bacterial DNA recombination because of high power and rapid reproduction of bacteria in order to obtain the number of offspring that a lot in a short time, is a plasmid that contains many microbes, and does not contain harmful genes. DNA recombination process: The patients with diabetes mellitus (diabetes) require insulin intake. Human insulin gene of the islets of Langerhans is taken then connected into a bacterial plasmid that has been cut by restriction endonucleases form Kimera (recombinant DNA). Kimera incorporated into the agent (E. coli) and connected by the enzyme ligase to propagated Biotechnology in the Field of Medicine              Biotechnology has an important role in the field of medicine, for example in the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormone synthesis. MAKING monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibodies are made by way of merger or fusion of the two types of cells, namely lymphocytes B cells that produce antibodies to the cancer cells (myeloma cells) that can live and divide continuously. The result of the fusion between the B lymphocyte cells with cancer cells in vitro is called hybridomas. Act as antigens that will produce anti-bodies is the spleen. Functions such as the diagnosis of disease and pregnancy. Benefits of monoclonal antibodies, among others: To detect chorionic gonadotropin hormone levels in the urine of pregnant women. Toxins bind and disable it. Prevent rejection of the transplanted tissue of the body against another. GENE THERAPY Gene therapy is a therapeutic technique used to repair mutant genes (abnormal / disabled) who is responsible for the occurrence of a disease. Initially, gene therapy was created to treat a hereditary disease (genetic) that occurs because of a mutation in a single gene, such as cystic fibrosis disease. The use of gene therapy in the disease normally done by inserting specific genes into cells that have a mutant gene. Then developing gene therapy to treat diseases caused by mutations in many genes, such as cancer and HIV. In addition to inserting a normal gene into the mutant cells, other mechanisms of gene therapy that can be used is to perform homologous recombination to eliminate the abnormal gene with a normal gene, preventing the abnormal gene expression through gene damping techniques, and doing so selective mutation behind the abnormal gene can function normally again. One example microorganisms used in gene therapy is adeno virus. Adeno virus is a group of viruses that can create double-stranded DNA of the genome can be incorporated with the host cell chromosome, for example cancer cells. This virus has a better ability to recognize cancer cells, penetrate and transfer genetic material into it. Broadly speaking there are two kinds of ways that can be used to insert new genes into a cell: In ex vivo. Most blood cells or bone marrow of patients taken to be cultured in the laboratory. Cells were given a virus adeno virus carrying the new gene. Adeno virus entry into cells and “fired” the new gene into the target cell DNA chain. The cell was cultured in the laboratory in a few moments. After gene completely fused with cells, then the cells were returned to the patient’s body by injection into a vein. In vivo. Adeno virus carrying the new gene is injected into the patient’s body. Adeno virus is programmed to seek out and attack the targeted cells eg cancer cells by firing a new gene into a cell carrying. The role of this virus is sometimes replaced by a plasmid vector liposomes or artificial VACCINE The vaccine is the antigenic material used to produce active immunity to a disease that can prevent or reduce the effects of infection by organisms natural or “wild”. Vaccines can be either viral or bacterial strains that have been attenuated so as not to cause disease. Vaccines can also be a dead organism or the results of purification (proteins, peptides, virus-like particles, etc.). The vaccine will prepare the immune system of a human or animal to survive the attack of certain pathogens, especially bacteria, viruses, or toxins. Vaccines can also help the immune system to fight the degenerative cells (cancer).              Examples are easily developed vaccine is the manufacture of inactivated polio virus. The microorganisms used were poliovirus is a small RNA virus that consists of three distinct and highly contagious strain. The virus will attack the nervous system and paralysis can occur in a matter of hours. Polio attack regardless of age, fifty percent of cases occur in children aged between 3 to 5 years. The incubation period of polio from the first symptoms ranged from 3 to 35 days. Inactivated polio vaccine production process is through the following steps: 1 Preparation of the medium (vero cell) for propagating viruses 2 Planting / virus inoculation 3 Harvesting virus 4 Purification of virus 5. inactivation / attenuation of virus Antibodies Antibodies are a class of compounds, natural or synthetic, which has the effect of suppressing or stopping a biochemical processes in the organism, especially in the process of infection by bacteria. The use of antibiotics in particular with regard to the treatment of infectious diseases, although in biotechnology and genetic engineering are also used as a means of selection against mutants or transformants. Antibiotics work as pesticides by hitting or breaking the chain of metabolism, it’s just that the target is bacteria. Antibiotics differ with disinfectant because of the way it works. Desifektan kill germs by creating an unnatural environment for germs to live.   Examples of bacteria that produce antibiotics are cryzogenum Penicillium fungus that produces penicillin antibiotic. Taxonomy of these fungi are: Kingdom: Fungi Division: Ascomycotina Class: Eurotiomycetes Order: Moniliales Family: Moniliceae Genus: Penicillium Species: Penicillium cryzogenum (formerly known as Penicillium notatum) Cryzogenum Penicillium is one of the best lipase producers among fungi in the genus other than that, Penicillium cryzogenum has high enzymatic activity and has the ability to produce alpha-amylase and capable of producing antibiotic known as penicillin. Merpakan penicillin β-lactam antibiotic that has the formula R-C9H11N2O4S, with side chain R is diverse. Penicillium cryzogenum a source for the production of penicillin, the first antibiotic. Penicillin worked against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus and Pneumacoccus.              The workings of penicillin is to disrupt peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls. Crosslinking during the formation of the bacterial peptidoglycan happens prevented by penicillin by inhibiting the transpeptidase enzyme with β-lactam other words will be bound to the transpeptidase enzyme associated with bacterial peptidoglycan molecules that eventually cause defects in the cell wall of bacteria. Then there taking excess water and weaken the cell wall of bacteria when bacterial cells divide causing them to rupture (cell lysis) and the bacteria eventually die. For gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mechanism is different from the mechanism of action on gram-positive bacteria. The thing that distinguishes the mechanism of action on gram positive and negative bacteria is the gram-positive bacteria, after the loss of the cell wall would be the protoplast, whereas the gram-negative bacteria will be sferoplas. Protoplasts and this is what will sferoplas lysis (rupture). Here’s a picture of the protoplast and sferoplas broke and penicillin nucleus The clinical usefulness of penicillin, among others: Treatment of infectious diseases by germs clostridia, such as Blackleg (Cl.Chauvoei), malignant edema (Cl. Septicum, Cl. Boutvuur), and tetanus (Cl. Tetani). Treatment of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Treatment of swine erysipelas (Erisipilothrix rhusiopathiae) Corynebacterium renale infections, which cause pyelonephritis, required high doses. For the treatment of lumpy jaw (actinomycosis by Actinomyces bovis) in cattle. For the treatment of wooden tongue (Actinobacillus lignieresi) in cattle Leptospira infection, penicillin combined with strptomisin. MAKING HORMONES With DNA engineering, today have used microorganisms to produce hormones. The hormones that have been produced, such as insulin, growth hormone, cortisone, and human insulin testosteron.Contoh generated with the help of Escherechia coli. Production of insulin can be done by transplanting genes controlling these hormones into bacterial plasmids. The success of moving the human insulin gene into bacteria can now be obtained, namely through the bacteria that grows with fermentation method. Plasmid technique aims to make hormones and antibodies. For example to make the hormone insulin with plasmid techniques. Genes / DNA cut with a restriction enzyme Endonucleases Gene / DNA spliced ​​with Enzymes Ligases. Insulin-Making Process In the insulin-making process, the first step is to isolate plasmid from E. coli. Plasmids are one of the bacterium’s genetic material in the form of small circular DNA strands. In addition to plasmids, the bacteria also has a chromosome. The uniqueness of this plasmid is able to be out of the body of bacteria, and often exchanged between bacteria. In the second step of this plasmid was isolated using a cut on a particular segment of restriction endonucleases. Meanwhile, DNA was isolated from the cells of the pancreas was cut on a segment of the coding segment to take insulin. Cutting is done with the same enzymes. DNA code is connected to insulin plasmid DNA using the enzyme ligase. The result is a combination of insulin with plasmid DNA code of a bacterium called recombinant DNA. Recombinant DNA is formed is inserted back into the bacterial cell. When E. coli bacteria multiply, it will produce colonies of bacteria that have recombinant DNA. After growing form colonies, bacteria containing recombinant DNA identified using probes. The probe is RNA chain or single chain DNA labeled radioactive material or a fluorescent material and can be paired with certain nitrogenous bases of DNA recombinant. At this step of making insulin probe used was Arnd of the gene encoding human pancreatic insulin. To choose which bacterial colonies containing recombinant DNA, the way is to put the bacteria on filter paper and then irradiated with ultraviolet. Bacteria that have been given recombinant DNA and the probe will appear to glow. Well, the bacteria that glow is then isolated to create a pure strain of recombinant DNA. In metabolism, these bacteria will produce the hormone insulin. Islamic Study on Biotechnology in the Field of Medicine Al-Baqarah 164 Meaning: Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth, the alternation of night and day, a seagoing ship carrying what is useful to man, and what Allah sends down from the sky in the form of water, then the water that He turn the earth after its death (dry) – her and He spread on earth was all kinds of animals, and the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth; indeed (are) signs (oneness and greatness of Allah) for people who reflect. In a famous hadith of the Prophet also declared that encourages us to seek knowledge even to China though. And God also encourages us to continue to read and learn what is found by humans. As was spoken by God in the Quran Surah Al Alaq verse 1-5: Meaning: Read with (call) the name of your Lord Creator, He has created man from a clot. Read, and your Lord is the Most merciful, He Who taught (man) with perantaran kalam, He taught man what he did not know. Of those, than to learn and understand the science, Islam also places great emphasis on the implications of the science, because the science is there to facilitate and improve the quality of human life itself. conclusion Utilization of microorganisms in medicine began to be developed. One of the techniques or the use of microorganisms way is by means of biotechnology. Experts have begun again to develop biotechnology to utilize scientific principles through research. In the attempt of modern biotechnology can produce products effectively and efficiently. Modern biotechnology is biotechnology or engineering based on the manipulation of DNA, in addition to utilizing the basic microbiology and biochemistry. Biotechnology has an important role in the field of medicine, for example in the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormone synthesis.

Microorganisms are living things that have a very small size. Every single cell microorganisms have the ability to carry out daily activities, among others, may experience growth, generate energy and reproduce by itself. Microorganisms have a high metabolic flexibility due to these microorganisms have to have a great ability to adapt so that if there is a high interaction with the environment leads to a high conversion of the substance as well. In the medical field, the use of microorganisms in the past evidenced among other things by the discovery of vaccines, antibiotics, and insulin by means of biotechnology, although still in limited quantities due to the fermentation process is not perfect. Significant changes occurred after the discovery by Louis Pasteur bioreactor. With this tool, the production of antibiotics and vaccines can be done in bulk. At this time, biotechnology is growing very rapidly, especially in developed countries. Progress is marked by the discovery of a variety of technologies such as genetic engineering, tissue culture, recombinant DNA, stem cell proliferation, cloning, and others. Biotechnology is the integrated use of the discipline of biochemistry, microbiology, and engineering sciences with the help of microbes, or jarirang cells and organisms in the technological and industrial applicability. This technology allows us to obtain the cure genetic diseases or chronic, incurable, such as cancer or AIDS. This technology is a form of a new breakthrough for utilizing microorganisms in the field of medicine. Countries with small areas, such as Israel, Japan, Thailand, and Singapore, has been very much to develop this field. In addition, developed countries, such as UK, USA, Germany, Australia, and Japan has long held an integrated research in the field of biotechnology and genetic engineering, even they have to sell new products with patents from the biotech and genetic engineering (especially in medicine and pharmacy), such as antibodies, drugs, hormones-hormones, enzymes, cosmetics materials, bacteria, cloning, IVF and so on.   Technology Utilization microorganisms Along with the development of science, the use of microorganisms in medicine began to be developed. One of the techniques or the use of microorganisms way is by means of biotechnology. Experts have begun again to develop biotechnology to utilize scientific principles through research. In the attempt of modern biotechnology can produce products effectively and efficiently. Modern biotechnology is biotechnology or engineering based on the manipulation of DNA, in addition to utilizing the basic microbiology and biochemistry. Modern biotechnology applications also include various aspects of human life, for example in the aspect of food, agriculture, animal husbandry, to health and medicine. The characteristics of the use of microorganisms, namely the use of microorganisms as agents, the use of genetic engineering, production of hormones, enzin, antibiotics, gas metahana, MSG, and others, and supported by other disciplines such as biochemistry, chemical engineering. In addition, use of the microorganism can also be done with genetic engineering technology. Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is a way of manipulating genes to produce new ones with the desired properties. Genetic engineering is also called transplant genes or DNA recombination. DNA used in genetic engineering to combine the properties of living things. That’s because the DNA of every living being has the same structure, so it can be recommended. Furthermore, the DNA will set the properties of living beings for generations. To change a cell’s DNA can be done through many ways, for example through the nucleus transplantation, cell fusion, plasmid technology, and DNA recombination. Genetic engineering in the medical sector is very large and important influence. For example, people with diabetes are now able to live like normal people, as always injected recombinant insulin and blood sugar measuring device that uses recombinant enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. Cancer patients increasingly longer life expectancy thanks to recombinant erythropoietin, colony stimulating factor grow recombinant spur growth of blood cells after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. TRANSPLANTATION CORE Heart transplantation is the transfer of a nucleus from a cell to another cell in order to obtain a new individual in accordance with the nature of the core receives. Heart transplant ever performed on frog cells. Cell nucleus is transferred nucleus of intestinal cells that are diploid frog. The cell nucleus is inserted into the ovum without a nucleus, forming a diploid ovum with the nucleus. After being given a new core, ovum divides repeatedly by mitosis, forming a morula develops into a blastula. The blastula then cut into many cells and taken the point. Then the cores are inserted into the core of the ovum without the other. Ultimately formed nucleated diploid ova in large quantities. Each ovum will develop into a new individual by nature and of the same sex. FUSION SEL / hybridoma Cell fusion is the fusion of two cells either from the same or different species in order to form hybrid cells or hybridomas. Cell fusion preceded by a widening of the two cell membranes and cytoplasm followed by smelting (plasmogami) and smelting cell nucleus (kariogami). Benefits of cell fusion, among others, for mapping chromosomes, making monoclonal antibodies, and form a new species. In the cell fusion is necessary to: Cell gene source (source ideal properties) Container cells (cells capable of rapidly dividing) Fusigen (substances that speed up cell fusion). TECHNOLOGY plasmid Plasmids are small circular DNA present in the bacterial or yeast cells outside the chromosomes. The properties of plasmids, among others: a DNA molecule containing a particular gene can beraplikasi self can be transferred to other bacterial cells properties of plasmids in the same bacterial offspring with the parent plasmid. Due to the properties mentioned above is used as a vector or a plasmid gene transfer into target cells. Besides having chromosomal DNA, bacteria also have DNA-mosom nonkro. Nonkromosom DNA and the circular shape is also located outside the chromosomal DNA. Nonkromosom circular DNA known as plasmids. About 1/1000 the size of the plasmid DNA Klai kro-mosom. Plasmid contains genes resistant gene antobiotik tertertu example, pathogen genes. As with other DNA, plasmids are able to replicate and establish themselves in large quantities. In bacterial cells can form plasmid 10-20. DNA recombination The process of connecting the DNA called DNA recombination. Because the goal is to connect the DNA recombination genes in the DNA of the gene is called recombination. DNA recombination is divided into two, namely natural and artificial. Natural that the crossovers, transduction, transformation. While Made with DNA splicing in vitro The reason may be due to DNA recombination DNA structure all the same species so that the DNA can be spliced​​-connect. Found enzyme cutting and fitting making it easier for the gene to be expressed in any cell. Factors Recombinant DNA: Enzymes (cutting and fitting) vector Agent (target cells) Cutting enzyme known as restriction endonucleases. The function of this enzyme is to cut up a long thread of DNA that can be spliced ​​into short-degan enzyme reconnect connector, the other name of the enzyme is an enzyme ligase junction. Ligase enzyme serves to connect the strands of nucleotide The nature of ligase enzyme, DNA Ligase can not connect single-stranded DNA, so it can only be used in the DNA double because catalyzes phosphodiester bond between two chains of DNA Vector, cloned DNA will need transportation to get to the pembiakannya, transportation called cloning vehicle or vector. Vectors are used usually in the form of plasmids Agent / target cell used is usually in the form of microbes, bacteria generally. For example, E. coli. Bacteria that have been infected multiply plasmid ‘deposit’ when reproducing. The reason for the selection of bacterial DNA recombination because of high power and rapid reproduction of bacteria in order to obtain the number of offspring that a lot in a short time, is a plasmid that contains many microbes, and does not contain harmful genes. DNA recombination process: The patients with diabetes mellitus (diabetes) require insulin intake. Human insulin gene of the islets of Langerhans is taken then connected into a bacterial plasmid that has been cut by restriction endonucleases form Kimera (recombinant DNA). Kimera incorporated into the agent (E. coli) and connected by the enzyme ligase to propagated Biotechnology in the Field of Medicine              Biotechnology has an important role in the field of medicine, for example in the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormone synthesis. MAKING monoclonal antibodies Monoclonal antibodies are made by way of merger or fusion of the two types of cells, namely lymphocytes B cells that produce antibodies to the cancer cells (myeloma cells) that can live and divide continuously. The result of the fusion between the B lymphocyte cells with cancer cells in vitro is called hybridomas. Act as antigens that will produce anti-bodies is the spleen. Functions such as the diagnosis of disease and pregnancy. Benefits of monoclonal antibodies, among others: To detect chorionic gonadotropin hormone levels in the urine of pregnant women. Toxins bind and disable it. Prevent rejection of the transplanted tissue of the body against another. GENE THERAPY Gene therapy is a therapeutic technique used to repair mutant genes (abnormal / disabled) who is responsible for the occurrence of a disease. Initially, gene therapy was created to treat a hereditary disease (genetic) that occurs because of a mutation in a single gene, such as cystic fibrosis disease. The use of gene therapy in the disease normally done by inserting specific genes into cells that have a mutant gene. Then developing gene therapy to treat diseases caused by mutations in many genes, such as cancer and HIV. In addition to inserting a normal gene into the mutant cells, other mechanisms of gene therapy that can be used is to perform homologous recombination to eliminate the abnormal gene with a normal gene, preventing the abnormal gene expression through gene damping techniques, and doing so selective mutation behind the abnormal gene can function normally again. One example microorganisms used in gene therapy is adeno virus. Adeno virus is a group of viruses that can create double-stranded DNA of the genome can be incorporated with the host cell chromosome, for example cancer cells. This virus has a better ability to recognize cancer cells, penetrate and transfer genetic material into it. Broadly speaking there are two kinds of ways that can be used to insert new genes into a cell: In ex vivo. Most blood cells or bone marrow of patients taken to be cultured in the laboratory. Cells were given a virus adeno virus carrying the new gene. Adeno virus entry into cells and “fired” the new gene into the target cell DNA chain. The cell was cultured in the laboratory in a few moments. After gene completely fused with cells, then the cells were returned to the patient’s body by injection into a vein. In vivo. Adeno virus carrying the new gene is injected into the patient’s body. Adeno virus is programmed to seek out and attack the targeted cells eg cancer cells by firing a new gene into a cell carrying. The role of this virus is sometimes replaced by a plasmid vector liposomes or artificial VACCINE The vaccine is the antigenic material used to produce active immunity to a disease that can prevent or reduce the effects of infection by organisms natural or “wild”. Vaccines can be either viral or bacterial strains that have been attenuated so as not to cause disease. Vaccines can also be a dead organism or the results of purification (proteins, peptides, virus-like particles, etc.). The vaccine will prepare the immune system of a human or animal to survive the attack of certain pathogens, especially bacteria, viruses, or toxins. Vaccines can also help the immune system to fight the degenerative cells (cancer).              Examples are easily developed vaccine is the manufacture of inactivated polio virus. The microorganisms used were poliovirus is a small RNA virus that consists of three distinct and highly contagious strain. The virus will attack the nervous system and paralysis can occur in a matter of hours. Polio attack regardless of age, fifty percent of cases occur in children aged between 3 to 5 years. The incubation period of polio from the first symptoms ranged from 3 to 35 days. Inactivated polio vaccine production process is through the following steps: 1 Preparation of the medium (vero cell) for propagating viruses 2 Planting / virus inoculation 3 Harvesting virus 4 Purification of virus 5. inactivation / attenuation of virus Antibodies Antibodies are a class of compounds, natural or synthetic, which has the effect of suppressing or stopping a biochemical processes in the organism, especially in the process of infection by bacteria. The use of antibiotics in particular with regard to the treatment of infectious diseases, although in biotechnology and genetic engineering are also used as a means of selection against mutants or transformants. Antibiotics work as pesticides by hitting or breaking the chain of metabolism, it’s just that the target is bacteria. Antibiotics differ with disinfectant because of the way it works. Desifektan kill germs by creating an unnatural environment for germs to live.   Examples of bacteria that produce antibiotics are cryzogenum Penicillium fungus that produces penicillin antibiotic. Taxonomy of these fungi are: Kingdom: Fungi Division: Ascomycotina Class: Eurotiomycetes Order: Moniliales Family: Moniliceae Genus: Penicillium Species: Penicillium cryzogenum (formerly known as Penicillium notatum) Cryzogenum Penicillium is one of the best lipase producers among fungi in the genus other than that, Penicillium cryzogenum has high enzymatic activity and has the ability to produce alpha-amylase and capable of producing antibiotic known as penicillin. Merpakan penicillin β-lactam antibiotic that has the formula R-C9H11N2O4S, with side chain R is diverse. Penicillium cryzogenum a source for the production of penicillin, the first antibiotic. Penicillin worked against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus and Pneumacoccus.              The workings of penicillin is to disrupt peptidoglycan synthesis in bacterial cell walls. Crosslinking during the formation of the bacterial peptidoglycan happens prevented by penicillin by inhibiting the transpeptidase enzyme with β-lactam other words will be bound to the transpeptidase enzyme associated with bacterial peptidoglycan molecules that eventually cause defects in the cell wall of bacteria. Then there taking excess water and weaken the cell wall of bacteria when bacterial cells divide causing them to rupture (cell lysis) and the bacteria eventually die. For gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae mechanism is different from the mechanism of action on gram-positive bacteria. The thing that distinguishes the mechanism of action on gram positive and negative bacteria is the gram-positive bacteria, after the loss of the cell wall would be the protoplast, whereas the gram-negative bacteria will be sferoplas. Protoplasts and this is what will sferoplas lysis (rupture). Here’s a picture of the protoplast and sferoplas broke and penicillin nucleus The clinical usefulness of penicillin, among others: Treatment of infectious diseases by germs clostridia, such as Blackleg (Cl.Chauvoei), malignant edema (Cl. Septicum, Cl. Boutvuur), and tetanus (Cl. Tetani). Treatment of anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) Treatment of swine erysipelas (Erisipilothrix rhusiopathiae) Corynebacterium renale infections, which cause pyelonephritis, required high doses. For the treatment of lumpy jaw (actinomycosis by Actinomyces bovis) in cattle. For the treatment of wooden tongue (Actinobacillus lignieresi) in cattle Leptospira infection, penicillin combined with strptomisin. MAKING HORMONES With DNA engineering, today have used microorganisms to produce hormones. The hormones that have been produced, such as insulin, growth hormone, cortisone, and human insulin testosteron.Contoh generated with the help of Escherechia coli. Production of insulin can be done by transplanting genes controlling these hormones into bacterial plasmids. The success of moving the human insulin gene into bacteria can now be obtained, namely through the bacteria that grows with fermentation method. Plasmid technique aims to make hormones and antibodies. For example to make the hormone insulin with plasmid techniques. Genes / DNA cut with a restriction enzyme Endonucleases Gene / DNA spliced ​​with Enzymes Ligases. Insulin-Making Process In the insulin-making process, the first step is to isolate plasmid from E. coli. Plasmids are one of the bacterium’s genetic material in the form of small circular DNA strands. In addition to plasmids, the bacteria also has a chromosome. The uniqueness of this plasmid is able to be out of the body of bacteria, and often exchanged between bacteria. In the second step of this plasmid was isolated using a cut on a particular segment of restriction endonucleases. Meanwhile, DNA was isolated from the cells of the pancreas was cut on a segment of the coding segment to take insulin. Cutting is done with the same enzymes. DNA code is connected to insulin plasmid DNA using the enzyme ligase. The result is a combination of insulin with plasmid DNA code of a bacterium called recombinant DNA. Recombinant DNA is formed is inserted back into the bacterial cell. When E. coli bacteria multiply, it will produce colonies of bacteria that have recombinant DNA. After growing form colonies, bacteria containing recombinant DNA identified using probes. The probe is RNA chain or single chain DNA labeled radioactive material or a fluorescent material and can be paired with certain nitrogenous bases of DNA recombinant. At this step of making insulin probe used was Arnd of the gene encoding human pancreatic insulin. To choose which bacterial colonies containing recombinant DNA, the way is to put the bacteria on filter paper and then irradiated with ultraviolet. Bacteria that have been given recombinant DNA and the probe will appear to glow. Well, the bacteria that glow is then isolated to create a pure strain of recombinant DNA. In metabolism, these bacteria will produce the hormone insulin. Islamic Study on Biotechnology in the Field of Medicine Al-Baqarah 164 Meaning: Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth, the alternation of night and day, a seagoing ship carrying what is useful to man, and what Allah sends down from the sky in the form of water, then the water that He turn the earth after its death (dry) – her and He spread on earth was all kinds of animals, and the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth; indeed (are) signs (oneness and greatness of Allah) for people who reflect. In a famous hadith of the Prophet also declared that encourages us to seek knowledge even to China though. And God also encourages us to continue to read and learn what is found by humans. As was spoken by God in the Quran Surah Al Alaq verse 1-5: Meaning: Read with (call) the name of your Lord Creator, He has created man from a clot. Read, and your Lord is the Most merciful, He Who taught (man) with perantaran kalam, He taught man what he did not know. Of those, than to learn and understand the science, Islam also places great emphasis on the implications of the science, because the science is there to facilitate and improve the quality of human life itself. conclusion Utilization of microorganisms in medicine began to be developed. One of the techniques or the use of microorganisms way is by means of biotechnology. Experts have begun again to develop biotechnology to utilize scientific principles through research. In the attempt of modern biotechnology can produce products effectively and efficiently. Modern biotechnology is biotechnology or engineering based on the manipulation of DNA, in addition to utilizing the basic microbiology and biochemistry. Biotechnology has an important role in the field of medicine, for example in the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies, gene therapy, vaccines, antibiotics, and hormone synthesis.

Relationship Tuberculosis Mycobacterium with TBC in The Microbial Research Field

 Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the form of a straight or slightly curved rods with a size of 0.2-0.4 x 1-4 ​​um. Ziehl-Neelsen stain used to identify acid-resistant bacteria. The bacteria grow slowly, colonies appeared after approximately 2 weeks even sometimes – sometimes after 6-8 weeks. The optimum temperature of 37 ° C, no growth at 25 ° C or more than 40 ° C. Solid medium is commonly used Lowenstein-Jensen. Optimum pH 6,4-7,0.Mycobacterium not stand the heat, will die at 6 ° C for 15-20 minutes. Cultures can die if exposed to direct sunlight for 2 hours. In sputum can last 20-30 hours. Basil is located in the splash material can survive 8-10 days. This bacillus cultures can live in room temperature 6 -8 months and can be stored in a closet with a temperature of 20 ° C for 2 years. Myko khemikalia bacteria resistant to disinfectants such as phenol and 5%, 15% sulfuric acid, citric acid 3% and 4% NaOH. Basil was destroyed by jodium tinctur in 5 Minit, with 80% alcohol will be destroyed within 2-10 minutes. Mycobacterium tuberculosis can cause tuberculosis (TB). 

 Figure 1.1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis

1 Mycobacterium tuberculosis

To learn the teachings of the smallest things listed in surat Al-Baqarah verse 164

That is: in fact the creation of the heavens and the earth, the alternation of night and day, the sailing ship at sea to bring what is useful to man and what Allah sends down from the sky in the form of water, then the water that He turn the earth after death (dry) and its he spread the earth was all kinds of animals, and the winds and the clouds controlled between the heaven and the earth, it (there) signs (oneness and greatness of Allah) for people who reflect.

 

2.2 TB2.

2.1 Definition of tuberculosis

Pulmonary tuberculosis is an infectious disease remains a public health problem. In Indonesia and various parts of the world. Tuberculosis is an infectious disease found that the highest incidence in India as many as 1.5 million people, ranked second in China found that up to 2 million people and Indonesia ranks third with 583,000 people person. Tuberculosis is a disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are systemic, which can manifest in almost all organs of the body with the highest location in the lungs which is usually the primary site of infection. Pulmonary Tuberculosis is a serious disease, especially in infants and young children, children with malnutrition, and children with immunological disorders. Most children suffering from primary tuberculosis at a young age and mostly asymptomatic and resolve spontaneously without sequelae.

 

In some patients the disease develops into the post-primary tuberculosis.According to WHO (1999), occur in Indonesia every year 583 new cases with the death of 130 patients with a positive tuberculosis in sputum. Meanwhile, according to research results kusnindar 1990, the number of deaths caused by tuberculosis estimated 105.952 people per year. The incidence of cases of pulmonary tuberculosis is high most common in societies with weak socio-economic. This is due to the increase in cases is affected by the immune system, nutritional status and individual personal hygiene and density of residential neighborhoods.In 1995 the government has provided a budget for tuberculosis drug free health center level, the main target is the tuberculosis patient with a weak economy. Tuberculosis drugs must be taken by the patient on a regular basis for six months in a row without stopping.To discipline the patient in performing the treatment also needs to be supervised by the immediate family members who live at home, which setiapa can remind patients when to take medication. If treatment is not interrupted for up to six months, the patient any time the disease will relapse and become resistant tuberculosis germs that require large costs for treatment. Tuberculosis is found in all parts of the globe. In some countries there has been a reduction in morbidity and death. Mortality rates ranged from less than 5-100 deaths per 100,000 population per year. Increased morbidity and mortality by age. In Amirika union in 1974 reported incidence rate of 14.2 per 100,000 population.

 

2.2.2 Causes of tuberculosis Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by rod-shaped bacteria (bacilli), known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Transmission of this disease through the intercession of saliva or sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis bacilli contain. At the time the patient coughs grains of saliva flew in the air and inhaled by a healthy person and entry into the lung which then causes pulmonary tuberculosis.

2.2.3 Symptoms of tuberculosis

Symptoms are caused by tuberculosis (TB) is as follows:

History of contact with an adult tuberculosis.

Long fever (≥2 weeks) and / or repeated without apparent cause, may be accompanied by night sweats. Fever is generally not high.

Cough more than 3 weeks old, and other causes have been ruled out.

Decreased appetite.Weight loss or a tough climb after handling adequate nutrition.

Malaise.

Persistent diarrhea which no improvement with treatment of diarrhea.Seizures, decreased consciousness, or neurologic deficits (meningitis)


Picture. Humans are infected with TB

2.2.4 Prevention of Tuberculosis
Prevention can be done in the following way:
BCG vaccination of all newborns.
Search for the possibility of pulmonary TB in a parent and child screening for appropriate diagnosis and treat others.
Explain to patients and parents that TB is a contagious disease. TB can be prevented by inexpensive and can be cured by regular medication.
2.2.4 Treatment of tuberculosis
Matters relating to the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in accordance with the letter of ash-syu’araa verse 80

Meaning: And when I was sick, it was he who heals me.
Anti-TB treatment can be by taking drugs – drugs as follows:
Isoniazid (INH): for 6-12 months
Ø therapeutic dose: 5-15 mg / kg / day given once daily
Ø prophylactic dose: 5-10 mg / kg / day given once daily
Ø The maximum dose: 300 mg / day
Dose: 10-20 mg / kg / day once daily on an empty stomach. The maximum dose: 600 mg / day
Dose: 25-35 mg / kg / day given 2 times a day
The maximum dose: 2 g / day
Dose: 15-20 mg / kg / day given once or 2 times a day
The maximum dose: 2 g / day
Dose: 20-40 mg / kg / day given once daily intramuscular
The maximum dose: 1 g / day
Rifampicin (R): for 6-12 months
Pyrazinamide (Z): during the first 2-3 months
Ethambutol (E): during the first 2-3 months
Streptomycin (S): during the first 1-2 months
* For miliary TB and TB pleural effusion was given prednisone 1-2 mg / kg / day for 2 weeks, then decrease the dose (tapering-off) for 2 weeks so prednisone no more than 1 month.
* In TB meningitis was given prednisone 1-2 mg / kg / day for 4 weeks and then decrease the dose (tapering off) for 8 weeks so that the overall prednisone no more than 2 months.

Note:
TB meningitis cases handled and the Child Neurology Division should be consulted to the Department of Ophthalmology and Neurosurgery.
Bone TB cases (spondylitis, koksitis, gonitis) consulted to the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, whereas when accompanied by neurological abnormalities consultation to the Department of Neurosurgery.
Miliary TB cases to the Department of Eye consulted for evaluation of TB choroid.

 

The spread of disease through the air and Prevention

Examples Disease And How To Spread Through the Air

  1. Tuberkulosis or  TBC

Tuberculosis or TB


Tuberculosis or TB is a disease that is very easy once the transmission. In general, the direct transmission of tuberculosis occurs when you’re face to face with the patient, through saliva and sputum are out of breath and cough patients. Can also indirectly through dust, duration of accumulation of germs and the onset of the disease for months annual sampi make this disease is classified chronic disease.
 

2. Meningitis

2 Meningitis

Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the membrane or the membranes lining the brain and nervous tunjang. Meningitis caused by a virus can be spread by coughing, sneezing, kissing, sharing eating 1 tablespoon, use a toothbrush together and smoked alternately in the trunk. So for those of you who know around a colleague or anyone experienced this type of meningitis should be careful. Mancuci hands thoroughly before eating and after ketoilet general, holding the pet.

3.  Bird Flu

3 Bird Flu

Avian Influenza or bird flu is an infectious disease caused by the H5N1 influenza virus. Viruses that carry the disease found in birds and can infect humans. Transmission of avian influenza viruses takes place through the respiratory tract. Poultry infected with this virus will spend large amounts of virus in their feces. Humans can be infected with this virus if this bervirus droppings become dry, fly with dust, then inhaled by the human respiratory tract.

4. Pneumonia

4. Pneumonia

Pneumonia or known by the name of pneumococcal disease is characterized by symptoms similar to a cold or sore throat sufferers ordinary, such as cough, heat, rapid breathing, shortness of breath to breath sounds, and body felt weak. The disease is commonly caused by the bacteria streptococcus pneumoniae and Hemopilus influenzae were flying in the air breathed into the body. The bacteria are often found in the respiratory tract, both in children and adults.

 

Control of air-borne diseases

 

1) Imunisasi


1) Immunization

With rubella vaccine in children-boys and girls from an early age
2) Changing the content of the body of infectious agents in the air by filtration, sterilization or dilution. Air filtration is played back with the amount of air flowing through the filter with a complex ventilation system require the use of energy plus great. Control techniques in the dilution air by replacement with outside air in the air constantly. There are also methods to control disease spread through the air, namely:
a) Method of ultraviolet light
Used in the room crowded with poor penetrating power, so the rays damage the eyes must be directed to the ceiling
b) Methods of air flow in one direction
Used in the aerospace industry laboratories with expensive limit for setting the heating or air
c) Method recirculation, filtered air
Used in place to limit any filter should be changed frequently.
d) method of firing
Used on the air vent of the chimney which there are infecting organism being moved (Volk and Wheeler, 1989).
Attempts to free the indoor air of microbes
As had been widely sold air conditioning / air conditioning with anti-microbial capability.

 

 

Role of Microbial Genetic Engineering In Industrial Insulin

 

Insulin (Latin: insula, “island”, because it is produced in the islands of Langerhans in the pancreas) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. In addition to an “effector” in the main carbohydrate homeostasis, this hormone also takes part in the metabolism of fats (triglycerides) and proteins. This hormone has anabolic properties. These hormones also affect other body tissues. Insulin causes the cell (biology) in muscle and adiposity absorb glucose from the blood circulation through the transporter GLUT1 and GLUT4 glucose and store it as glycogen in the liver and muscles as an energy source. Low insulin levels will reduce the absorption of glucose and the body will start using fat as an energy source. Insulin is normally produced by the pancreas. In a healthy state will spontaneously pancreas to produce insulin when blood sugar is high. The process is as follows: if low blood sugar glucagon will be released by the alpha cells of the pancreas, and the liver releases sugar into the blood that lead to normal blood sugar levels. Conversely, if the blood sugar is high, insulin will be released by the beta cells of the pancreas, and fat cells will bind blood sugar, causing blood sugar levels to normal. The structure of human insulin consists of two polypeptide chains linked by disulfide bonds, namely alpha and beta polypeptide.

 

Sumber:  http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm

Alpha polypeptide containing 21 amino acids is a polypeptide containing 30 amino acid beta. If the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide known then by using the code Geneti ka may also be known nucleotide sequence Gena (DNA) were coded them. Insulin is used in the treatment of some types of diabetes mellitus. Patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus depend on exogenous insulin (injected under the skin / subcutaneous) for his safety because of the absolute lack of the hormone, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have lower levels of insulin production ataukebal insulin, and sometimes requires the setting of insulin when other treatments are not enough to regulate blood glucose levels. Matters relating to the treatment of diabetes mellitus according to the letter ash Syu’araa ‘verse 80 Meaning: and when I was sick, He Who heals me. In this case we know that Allah has created the kind of microbes such as Escherichia coli can metabolize. From the results it can produce insulin metabolism that can be used by people with diabetes. Before the era of genetic engineering, insulin needed to treat patients with DM were obtained from animals. Insulin produced by the pancreas of cattle or pigs are used for the treatment of diabetes in humans. When compared with the extraction of insulin from the pancreas of cattle that produce only ½ cc of course, porcine insulin can produce approximately 1 L of insulin from the pancreas were cloned genes in yeast to the jar fermenter capacity of 1000 L. When observed carefully, scientifically organs that exist in pigs have embodiments very well with humans.

 

Sumber: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm

Another comparison was also found from the results of the chemical structure of which is owned by the pigs, it turns insulin structure owned by pankres pig has a shape similar to human insulin, namely: Human Insulin: C256H381N65O76S6 MW = 5807.7 Insulin Pig: C257H383N65O77S6 MW = 5777.6 However, this method has drawbacks, namely the lack of insulin that can be produced by the pancreas, which is not proportional to the number of people with diabetes who require insulin. In addition it allows for side effects due to the insulin produced is not exactly the same as human insulin. Although known to the insulin produced by the pig is most similar to human insulin, but keep in mind that in Islam pig is an unclean animal as Allah says in the Qur’an Surah Al An’am verse 145 which means: “Say: It is not I get the revelation that revealed to me, something that is forbidden for people who want to eat it, unless the food was carrion, or blood flow or pork … “. The discovery of genetic engineering in E. coli to produce insulin, which is much more profitable because of human insulin that is produced does not give side effects such as animal insulin and insulin can be produced in a relatively short time.

 

Sumber: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm

This is because the generation time of E. coli is quite short, lasting only 20 minutes, so every 20 minutes, an E. coli cell divides into 2 cells. The use of microbes in the production of insulin by using a type of E. coli bacteria belonging to the industrial microbiology. E. coli is a bacterium members. During this time when we hear the word bacteria, it is imagined in our minds is something that is detrimental, for example the cause of a disease. When in fact not the case of E. coli, the bacteria is known as the human body’s normal microbial. E. coli are not pathogenic in the intestine during and even according to Sujono (1998) The bacterial symbiosis mutualism with humans. E. coli helped shape vitamins (especially vitamin K) and can inhibit the formation of H2S gas, whereas E. coli also get food from the remnants of the human metabolism. This phenomenon is in accordance with the word of God in the Qur’an Al-Imran verse 191 letters Meaning: (They are) those who remember Allah, standing, sitting, lying down and their objec thinking about the creation of the heavens and the earth (saying): “Our Lord, You have not created this in vain, Glory to Thee, then save us from the torment of hell. In Surah Al-Imran explains that everything created by God in this earth from the smallest to the biggest things has the sole purpose to human life on earth. E. coli is widely used in genetic engineering technology. Usually used as a vector to insert specific genes are desired to be developed. Chosen because E. coli growing very fast and easy handling. The hormone insulin is produced in the body takes place in the biosynthesis of E. coli bacteria.

Sumber: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm

Production process: Source: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm Escherrichia coli (E. coli), the inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, is a ‘factory’ that is used in the genetic engineering of insulin. When the bacteria reproduce, the insulin gene is replicated along with the plasmid. E. coli instantaneous quickly produce enzymes that degrade foreign proteins such as insulin. This can be prevented by using a mutant strain of E. coli that contains little of this enzyme. In E. coli, B-galactosidase is an enzyme that controls gene transcription. To make the bacteria produce insulin, the insulin gene needs to be bound to this enzyme. Restriction enzymes are naturally produced by bacteria. Restriction enzymes act as biological scalpels, only recognize certain nucleotide sequences, eg one set of codes for insulin. It allows researchers to decide certain nitrogen base pairs and remove the DNA that contains the genetic code of an organism so that the chromosomes can produce insulin. While DNA ligase is an enzyme that functions as a genetic adhesive and welding end nucleotide Source: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm Humulin is the first step in making synthesize DNA chains that carry a specific nucleotide sequences corresponding characteristics of A and B polypeptide chains of insulin.

Sumber: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm

DNA sequences required can be determined because the amino acid composition of the two chains have been mapped. Sixty-three nucleotides required to synthesize chain A and chain B to ninety, plus codon at the end of each chain that signifies the termination of protein synthesis. Anticodon combines amino acids, methionine, and then placed at the beginning of each chain which allows the transfer of the insulin protein amino acid that the bacteria cells. ‘Gen’ synthetic A and B chains then separately inserted into the gene for a bacterial enzyme, B-galactosidase, which is carried in the plasmid vector. At this stage, it is important to ensure that the synthetic gene codon is compatible with B-galactosidase. Recombinant plasmid is then inserted into E. coli cells. Source: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm Practical use of recombinant DNA technology in the synthesis of human insulin requires millions of copies of bacterial plasmids have been combined with the insulin gene in order to produce insulin.

Sumber: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm

The insulin gene is expressed along with replicating cells galactosidase-B in cells undergoing mitosis. Source: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm Proteins are formed, partly made ​​up of B-galactosidase, joined to one of the insulin A or B chain of insulin chain A and chain B is then extracted from the fragment B-galactosidase and purified. Source: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm Both chains are mixed and tied back in a reaction that forms a disulfide cross bridges, resulting in pure Humulin (human insulin synthetic). Source: http://www.littletree.com.au/dna.htm Biological implications of genetic engineering recombinant Humulin Humulin is animal protein made ​​from bacteria such that the structure is really identical to the natural molecule. This will reduce the possibility of complications caused by the body’s production of human antibodies. In the study of chemistry and pharmacology, recombinant DNA human insulin produced commercially has proven to be indistinguishable from a human pancreatic insulin. Initially, the main difficulty encountered is the contamination of the final product by the host cell, thereby increasing the risk of contamination in the fermentation broth. This danger is overcome by the discovery of the purification process. When carried out tests on the final product of insulin, including the best techniques of radio-immuno assay, there was no ‘dirt’ is detected. The entire procedure, now performed using yeast cells as a growth medium, because the yeast cell can produce a human insulin molecule that is almost complete with a perfect three-dimensional structure. This minimizes the need for complex and expensive purification procedures.